s or ‘s or s’

Plural and possesive - really not that confusing, pic: http://www.susancorso.com

The s at the end of the word is a source of confusion to many – native and non-native speakers but it is relatively simple once one understands the underlying principle.

An extra “s” at the end of a word generally indicates plural: cat – cats, car – cars, concept – concepts

There is an exception for nouns ending on s, z, ch, sh and x – to make it easier to pronounce those plural forms they take an -es plural form

beach – beaches, fox – foxes,  fish – fishes

Then there are the possessive forms which indicates that someone owns something (it is like the genitive):

“This is Mike,  Jane’s new boy-friend.” (Mike “belongs” to Jane)

“The family’s house has five bedrooms” (the house belongs to the family)”

If the noun already ends on an s, z, or x the possessive s is generally dropped “Charles’ new bike”, “Max’ ambition is to become president”

Lastly, the possessive plural – use the plural form and add the apostrophe: “the singers’ voices are simply beautiful”

There are irregular plural forms of everything, as to be expected – but this covers the vast majority of cases.

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